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What is CMVR Category of Vehicles?

While searching for your favorite vehicle on the internet you often come across a term called “CMVR”.

Now the first question which arises in your mind is – What is CMVR ?

With the evolution of Electric Vehicles across the Globe, we came to know about various Vehicle types like Electric Scooters / Electric Cycle that doesn’t require any Driving License to Drive, Electric Scooters that require a Driving Licence to Drive, Electric Rickshaw, E-Cart, Electric Auto, Electric Cargo, etc.

Now the Questions which arises in your mind are:

What is the difference between Electric Rickshaw & Electric Auto when both are three Wheeler?

What is the difference between an Electric Scooter that doesn’t require a Driving License whereas as another Electric Scooter that requires a Driving License to drive?

With this Article, We are sure that you will get Answers to all your Questions related to CMVR Category of Vehicles and other related queries.

So, without any further delay, Let’s get started.

What is Homologation?

The term Homologation is derived from the Greek homologeo means “to agree”, which signifies getting approval by an Official and Authorized Agency / Authority. This may be any Judicial Department, a Government Department, or any Authorized Agency that works as per strict guidelines/rules/standards to arrive at a decision whether such approval should be given or not.

In every Country, Each Vehicle whether Gasoline Driven or any Electric Vehicle needs to get type approvals in accordance with the Official standards for its automotive systems and components prior to its sale. These Rules and Standards are made in such a way that it aims at improving Vehicle safety (both active and passive), environmental Safety and also Product Quality and also improving the production process.

Homologation

The homologation process consists of several steps:

  • Component approval (lamps, mirrors, tires etc)
  • Component fitting to the vehicle (electric/electronic sub assemblies, car audio systems etc)
  • System approvals (breaking, exhaust emission etc)
  • Whole vehicle type approval ( WVTA ) / Vehicle certification test

For each Vehicle, the Indian Authorized Agency (like ARAI, ICAT, etc) issues “TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATE (TAC)” and/or “CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION CERTIFICATE (COP)” according to each applicable CMVR based on test reports. This certificate is recognized in all Countries as mentioned in the test Report.

What is CMVR?

CMVR full form is “Central Motor Vehicle Rules 1989”. In India, the rules and regulations related to driver’s license, registration of motor vehicles, control of traffic, construction & maintenance of motor vehicles, etc. are governed by the Motor Vehicles Act (MVA),1988, and the Central Motor Vehicles Rules (CMVR Rules 1989).

The Ministry of Road Transport, Highways & Shipping (MoRTH) acts as a Nodal agency for the formulation and implementation of various provisions of the Motor Vehicle Act and CMVR 1989.

Category of Vehicles as per CMVR

As per Central Motor Vehicles Rules (CMVR 1989) and its Amendments, Vehicles are categorized in various categories like L, M, N, T, A, C, etc:

Two-Wheeler

CMVR Vehicle Category for two-wheelers
Vehicle Category L1
Vehicle Category L2
Vehicle Category for Power less than 250 Watts
  1. Vehicle Category L1: Two Wheelers without Gear having Maximum Speed NOT exceeding 70 Km/hr, Engine Power NOT more than 50 CC for ICE Vehicles (Internal Combustion Engine using Gasoline, LPG, CNG, etc. as fuel) OR Motor Power NOT more than 4 KW for Electric vehicles (Battery Operated)
    • Seating Capacity – Driver + 1
    • Examples – Scooter, Motorcycle, Moped
  1. Vehicle Category L2: Two Wheelers both with & without Gear having Maximum Speed exceeding 70 Km/hr, Engine Power more than 50 CC for ICE Vehicles (Internal Combustion Engine using Gasoline, LPG, CNG, etc. as fuel) OR Motor Power more than 4 KW for Electric vehicles (Battery Operated)
    • Seating Capacity – Driver + 1
    • Examples – Scooter, Motorcycle, Moped
  1. Vehicle Category having Power less than 250 Watts: Only applicable for Electric Two-Wheelers (Battery Operated) having Maximum Speed NOT exceeding 25 Km/hr and Motor Power NOT more than 0.25 KW (250 Watts Only)
    • Seating Capacity – Driver + 1
    • ULW (Unladen Weight) of Vehicle (Excluding Battery) = 60 Kg (Max.)
    • Examples – Electric Bicycle, Slow Speed Electric Scooter / Moped
    • Note: NO Driving License required for this Category of Electric two Wheelers

For Electric Two Wheelers having Motor Power less than 250 Watts & Speed less than 25 Km/hr, NO Driving License is required.

Three- Wheeler

CMVR Vehicle Category for three-wheelers
Vehicle Category L5M
Vehicle Category L5N
Vehicle Category E-Rickshaw
Vehicle Category E-cart
  1. Vehicle Category L5M: Three Wheelers for carrying PASSENGERS having Maximum Speed exceeding 25 Km/hr, Engine Power more than 25 CC for ICE Vehicles (Internal Combustion Engine using Gasoline, Diesel, LPG, CNG, etc. as fuel) OR Motor Power more than 0.25 KW (250 Watts) for Electric vehicles (Battery Operated)
    • Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) = 1500 Kg (Max.)
    • Seating Capacity – Driver + 3
    • Examples – Auto-Rickshaws, Electric Auto
  1. Vehicle Category L5N: Three Wheelers for carrying CARGO (GOODS CARRIER) having Maximum Speed exceeding 25 Km/hr, Engine Power more than 25 CC for ICE Vehicles (Internal Combustion Engine using Gasoline, Diesel, LPG, CNG, etc. as fuel) OR Motor Power more than 0.25 KW (250 Watts) for Electric vehicles (Battery Operated)
    • Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) = 1500 Kg (Max.)
    • Seating Capacity – Driver
    • Examples – Loading Tempos, Electric Cargo
  1. Vehicle Category E-Rickshaw: Special Purpose Battery Operated Vehicle having Three Wheels and intended to provide the last mile connectively for transport of PASSENGERS. Its Maximum Speed should NOT exceed 25 Km/hr and Motor Power NOT more than 2 KW
    • Seating Capacity – Driver + 4
    • Examples – E-Rickshaw
  1. Vehicle Category E-Cart: Special Purpose Battery Operated Vehicle having Three Wheels and intended to provide the last mile connectively for carrying GOODS. Its Maximum Speed should NOT exceed 25 Km/hr and Motor Power NOT more than 2 KW
    • Seating Capacity – Driver
    • Examples – E-Cart

Four- Wheeler (Passenger / Goods Carrier)

CMVR Vehicle Category for Four wheelers
Vehicle Category M1
Vehicle Category M2
Vehicle Category M3
Vehicle Category N1
Vehicle Category N2
Vehicle Category N3
Vehicle CategoryL7 (quadricycle)
  1. Vehicle Category M1: A Motor Vehicle with at least four wheels used for carrying PASSENGERS, comprising NOT more than 8 Seats in addition to Driver’s Seat
    • Seating Capacity – Driver + 8
    • Fuel Type: Gasoline, Diesel, LPG, CNG, Electric (Battery Operated)
    • Examples – Car, Jeep, SUV, etc
  1. Vehicle Category M2: A Motor Vehicle with at least four wheels used for carrying PASSENGERS, comprising 9 or MORE Seats in addition to Driver’s Seat and Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) UPTO 5 Tonns
    • Seating Capacity – Driver + 9 & More
    • Fuel Type: Gasoline, Diesel, LPG, CNG, Electric (Battery Operated)
    • Examples – Bus, Travellers, etc
  1. Vehicle Category M3: A Motor Vehicle with at least four wheels used for carrying PASSENGERS, comprising 9 or MORE Seats in addition to Driver’s Seat and Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) MORE than 5 Tonns
    • Seating Capacity – Driver + 9 & More
    • Fuel Type: Gasoline, Diesel, LPG, CNG, Electric (Battery Operated)
    • Examples – Bus, etc
  1. Vehicle Category N1: A Motor Vehicle with at least four wheels used for carrying GOODS (CARGO) having Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) NOT exceeding 3.5 Tonns
    • Fuel Type: Gasoline, Diesel, Electric (Battery Operated)
    • Examples – LCV (Light Commercial Vehicles), etc
  1. Vehicle Category N2: A Motor Vehicle with at least four wheels used for carrying GOODS (CARGO) having Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) exceeding 3.5 Tonns but NOT exceeding 12 Tonns
    • Fuel Type: Gasoline, Diesel, Electric (Battery Operated)
    • Examples – MCV (Medium Commercial Vehicles), etc
  1. Vehicle Category N3: A Motor Vehicle with at least four wheels used for carrying GOODS (CARGO) having Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) exceeding 12 Tonns
    • Fuel Type: Gasoline, Diesel, Electric (Battery Operated)
    • Examples – HCV (Heavy Commercial Vehicles), etc
  1. Vehicle Category L7 (Quadricycle): A four-wheeled fully enclosed vehicle with doors and a Steering Wheel having maximum permissible propulsion power of 15 KW and a maximum design speed of 70 Km/hr
    • Sides and Top should NOT be made of flexible material (Like Cloth, Plastic, rexin, etc)
    • The top edge of the doors having at least 200 mm from the adjacent seat base top surface
    • Cargo Body internal Area should not be less than 30% of Vehicle’s (Length X Width)
    • Kerb Weight 475 kg (Max) for Passenger Quadricycle
    • Kerb Weight 550 kg (Max) for Cargo Quadricycle
    • PayLoad 550 kg (Max) for Cargo Quadricycle
    • Seating Capacity: Driver+3 for Passenger Quadricycle
    • Seating Capacity: Driver+1 for Cargo Quadricycle
    • Should NOT be any provision of coupling a semi-trailer
    • Fuel Type: Gasoline, Diesel, Electric (Battery Operated)
    • Examples – Bajaj Qute, Mahindra Atom (Upcoming)

Trailers

  1. Vehicle Category T1: A non-self propelled driven road vehicle, having at least two wheels used to transport persons / goods which is towed by a motor vehicle
    • Gross vehicle Weight (GVW) NOT exceeding 0.75 tonnes
    • Fuel Type: Diesel
  1. Vehicle Category T2: A non-self propelled driven road vehicle, having at least two wheels used to transport persons / goods which is towed by a motor vehicle
    • Gross vehicle Weight (GVW) exceeding 0.75 tonnes but NOT exceeding 3.5 tonnes
    • Fuel Type: Diesel
  1. Vehicle Category T3: A non-self propelled driven road vehicle, having at least two wheels used to transport persons / goods which is towed by a motor vehicle
    • Gross vehicle Weight (GVW) exceeding 3.5 tonnes but NOT exceeding 10 tonnes
    • Fuel Type: Diesel
  1. Vehicle Category T4: A non-self propelled driven road vehicle, having at least two wheels used to transport persons / goods which is towed by a motor vehicle
    • Gross vehicle Weight (GVW) exceeding 10 tonnes
    • Fuel Type: Diesel
  1. Vehicle Category T5: A semi-trailer intended to be drawn by a three-wheeled haulage tractor

Agricultural Tractor / Power Tiller

  1. Vehicle Category A: Agricultural Tractors and Power Tillers falls under Vehicle Category – A
    • Agricultural Tractor: A mechanically propelled four – wheel vehicle designed to work with suitable implements for farming operations
    • Agricultural tractor is a Non-Transport Vehicle
    • Power Tiller: An Agricultural machinery used for soil preparation having a single axle in which the direction of travel and its control for field operation is performed by the operator walking behind it.
    • Power Tiller when coupled to a trailer can be used for the transportation of goods. When coupled to a trailer, its maximum speed should NOT exceed 22 km/h. Maximum haulage capacity of the Power tiller when coupled to a trailer shall not exceed 1.5 tons
    • Fuel Type: Gasoline, Diesel, Electric (Battery Operated)

Construction Equipment Vehicle (CEV)

  1. Vehicle Category C: A self-propelled machine with rubber / pneumatic tyred, primarily designed to perform earth moving, excavation, loading, transportation, drilling, spreading, compacting or trenching of earth, rock, other materials, off-highway operations in mining, industrial undertaking, irrigation and general construction
    • Modified and Manufactured with “ON and OFF” Highway Capabilities
    • Examples – All Construction Equipment Vehicles (CEV) like Rubber / Steel Drum wheel Mounted Compactor, Hydraulic Excavator, Wheel Loader, Backhoe Loader, Skid-Steer Loader, Dumper, Motor Grader, Mobile Crane, Dozer and Pavers, Fork Lift Truck, Self-Loading Concrete Mixer, Self-Propelled Pumps, Concrete Pumps, etc

Frequently Asked Questions

What is CMVR full form ?

CMVR full form is Central Motor Vehicle Rules 1989 (CMVR 1989).

All the rules and regulations in India related to driver’s license, registration of motor vehicles, control of traffic, construction & maintenance of motor vehicles, etc. are governed by Motor Vehicle Act (MVA 1988) and Central Motor Vehicle Rules (CMVR 1989)

What are CMVR rules for Electric Vehicles ?

CMVR 1989 rules are applicable to Electric vehicles also. As per CMVR, For Electric vehicles Engine Power in CC is replaced by Motor power in KW.

Also some CMVR Vehicle Categories have also been added for Electric Vehicles like, E-Rickshaw, E-Cart, Slow Speed Electric Scooters & Electric Bicycles (that don’t require any license to drive).

What is the difference between Electric Rickshaw & Electric Auto when both are three Wheeler?

The main difference between an Electric Auto & an Electric Rickshaw (E-Rickshaw) is their CMVR 1989 Category of Vehicle.
# Key Difference:
>> Electric Auto
CMVR Category of Vehicle = L5M
Max. Speed more than 25 Km/hr
Motor Power more than 0.25 W (250 Watts)
Seating Capacity = Driver + 3
>> Electric Rickshaw
CMVR Category of Vehicle = E-Rickshaw
Max. Speed less than 25 Km/hr
Motor Power NOT more than 2 KW
Seating Capacity = Driver + 4

Which Vehicles do not require any Driving License to Drive in India ?

Only Electric Two-Wheelers (Battery Operated) having Maximum Speed NOT exceeding 25 Km/hr and Motor Power NOT more than 0.25 KW (250 Watts Only) does not require any Driving License to Drive in India. For Example – Slow Speed Electric Scooters, Electric Bicycle, etc.

The Gist

All the Vehicles whether Gasoline Driven or Diesel / LPG / CNG Driven or whether Electric (Battery) Operated, are categorized as per CMVR 1989 Category of Vehicles.

The main criteria for their categorization include Vehicle Maximum Speed, Engine / Motor Power, Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), Seating Capacity, Two Wheeler / Three Wheeler / Four Wheeler, etc to name a few.

So what do you think about our article on What is CMVR Category of Vehicles? Was it helpful for you to understand the Category of Vehicles as per CMVR 1989? Write your thoughts or any Query in the comments below.

If you find this helpful, then please Share this post with others too. Your every share appreciates our efforts.

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Vivek Jain
Vivek Jainhttps://ecofutureride.com
Vivek Jain is the founder of ECOFutureRide.com, a Digital Platform that provides detailed information related to ECO-friendly Vehicles like Electric Vehicles through Blogs, News, Vehicles, Videos, Reviews. He is an Engineer by Profession with over 18 Years of Rich Experience in Automobile, Telecom, Solar, Product Design Domains. He has a keen interest in ECO-Friendly Products & Services mainly related to Zero-Emission Rides.
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1 COMMENT

  1. Sir can you give me deep details in 4wheeler e cart detail .
    1) all Standards, rules regulation
    2)documentation
    Which agency is giving to me short time in get me a approval
    Or India me koi bhi test track agency approval De shakti hai kya

    Sir please contact Kare
    8788275886

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